Yablochkov candle with part of the bulb removed to show the two parallel carbon rods separated slightly from each other by a layer of plaster of Paris.
A Yablochkov candle consists of a sandwich of two long carbon blocks, approximately 6 by 12 millimetres in cross-section, separated by a block of inert material such as plaster of paris or kaolin. There is a small piece of fuse wire or carbon paste linking the two carbon blocks at the top end. The assembly is mounted vertically into a suitable insulated holder.
On application of the electric supply, the fuse wire 'blows' and strikes the arc. The arc then continues to burn, gradually consuming the carbon electrodes (and the intervening plaster) as it does so. The first candles were powered by a Gramme machine.
On disconnecting the supply, the arc extinguishes. It cannot be restarted, as there is now no fuse wire between the electrodes. Once switched off or consumed, the candle must be replaced. Electrodes last about two hours.
The advantage of the design over other carbon arc designs is that it removes the need for a mechanical regulator to maintain the appropriate distance between the carbon blocks to sustain the arc.
It was first demonstrated as street and theatre illumination during the Paris Exhibition of 1878, notably on the Avenue de l'Opéra. The candles were enclosed in globes of enamelled glass, with four to twelve candles in each connected in series.
Yablochkov candle without bulb. Illustration from La Nature (1877).
Yablochkov candles illuminating Avenue de l'Opéra in Paris under the Exposition Universelle (1878).
Yablochkov candles in Music hall at Place du Château d'Eau in Paris, c. 1880
Yablochkov candles installed at Victoria Embankment in London, December 1878
То есть эти позорные традлгунишки пытаются впарить, что якобы некий гхыр из Как-его-вот-тутки (где визги и сопли как-его-вот-тутов "осветили Гейопу в прямом смысле!!!") в 1876 году показал недоработанный вариант лампы на выставке, в 1877 доработал до 2 часов горения и последующую замену на новую лампу, а в 1878-1880 уже его лампами освещены УЛИЦЫ, КАБАКИ, ТЕАТРЫ и бегают ТРАМВАИ !!!
А как же ГЕНЕРАТОРЫ, ПРОВОДА, СОГЛАСОВАНИЯ, ЧЕРТЕЖИ, РЕМОНТ-СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВО по новым технологиям, все сразу же людям, ничего королям-барам при свечах перебьются.
Если лампы меняют каждые 2 часа, то где в КАБАКЕ-ТЕАТРЕ веревки-блоки для спуска-подъема люстр ?
А ПЕРВУЮ электростанцию как бы зафигачит только через 2 года в Жмеринке некий Эдиссон. Эти чем запитывали свои ЛАМПЫ - ТРАМВАИ ???
Brush Electric Company's central power plant dynamos powered arc lamps for public lighting in New York. Beginning operation in December 1880 at 133 West Twenty-Fifth Street, it powered a 2-mile (3.2 km) long circuit.
The California Electric Company (now PG&E) in San Francisco in 1879 used two direct current generators from Charles Brush's company to supply multiple customers with power for their arc lamps. This San Francisco system was the first case of a utility selling electricity from a central plant to multiple customers via transmission lines. CEC soon opened a second plant with 4 additional generators. Service charges for light from sundown to midnight was $10 per lamp per week.
In December 1880, Brush Electric Company set up a central station to supply a 2-mile (3.2 km) length of Broadway with arc lighting. By the end of 1881, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Montreal, Buffalo, San Francisco, Cleveland and other cities had Brush arc lamp systems, producing public light well into the 20th century. By 1893 there were 1500 arc lamps illuminating New York streets.
The first electricity system supplying incandescent lights was built by Edison Electric Illuminating Company in lower Manhattan eventually serving one square mile with 6 "jumbo dynamos" housed at Pearl Street Station. When service began in September 1882, there were 85 customers with 400 light bulbs. Each dynamo produced 100 kW- enough for 1200 incandescent lights, and transmission was at 110 V via underground conduits. The system cost $300,000 to build with installation of the 100,000 feet (30,000 m) of underground conduits one of the most expensive parts of the project. Operating expenses exceeded income in the first two years and fire destroyed the plant in 1890. Edison's lights were cheaper, provided light that was warmer and operated at much lower voltages than the arc lamps. Further, Edison had a three wire system so that either 110 V or 220 V could be supplied to power some motors.
Berlin, 1884. With double the brilliance of gaslight, arc lamps were in high demand for stores and public areas. Arc lighting circuits used up to thousands of volts with arc lamps connected in series.
Streetcars created enormous demand for early electricity. This Siemens Tram from 1884 required 500 V direct current, which was typical.
Вот не успели в Жмеринке в 1880 году щелкнуть ПЕРВЫМ в МИРЕ рубильником, а тут же в Гейопе и улицы в ЭЛЕКТРИЧЕСКОМ СВЕТЕ и ТРАМВАИ гуляют. Палочкой волшебной махнули, отмашку дали ? А как же ПРОЕКТИРОВАТЬ - СТРОИТЬ - НАЛАЖИВАТЬ - и т.д. ? А старик Хоттабыч все бородой натряс !!!